The diaphragm is the muscle that separates the abdomen from the chest and helps to breathe. Hiccup is a rhythmic spasm of the diaphragm. When the contraction of the diaphragm occurs, the vocal cords suddenly close and generate the classic hiccup sound. Eating too much, drinking too much alcohol and sudden changes in temperature can cause hiccups. Often, hiccups stop on their own, without medical treatment. To treat hiccups caused by a disease or persistent hiccups, a doctor may prescribe some medication as a treatment, according to the Mayo Clinic.
Chlorpromazine is an antipsychotic and antinausea medication. The prescribed medication, available as a tablet, syrup, suppository or injection, helps to treat persistent hiccups as well as schizophrenia, nausea and tetanus. To treat persistent hiccups, a doctor prescribes doses of between 25 and 50 mg three or four times per day, according to RxList. com. If the oral dose does not stop the hiccups, intramuscular or intravenous injections may help. Dizziness, especially when standing up after lying down or sitting up, can occur because of the level of blood pressure decreased by chlorpromazine.
Metroclopramide works by contracting the muscles in the upper gastrointestinal tract, which helps treat conditions such as nausea and heartburn. This prescription medication can also help treat cases of persistent hiccups. The dose of the medication varies between patients. Side effects of the antinausea drug include dizziness, diarrhea and drowsiness, according to Drugs. com. A serious side effect of metoclopramide is a condition called tardive dyskinesia, which causes repetitive movements of the mouth and tongue. Late dyspepsia may be permanent, especially with prolonged use of metoclopramide.
Baclofen treats persistent hiccups because medication is a muscle relaxant and helps control spastic muscles. To treat hiccups, a doctor prescribes baclofen in progressive oral doses. Starting with 5 mg three times a day for three days, the doctor increases the dose by 5 mg every three days to reach 20 mg, according to Drugs. com. A maintenance dose may be necessary to treat the condition. Possible side effects of baclofen include dizziness, nausea, insomnia and headaches.