According to popular knowledge, the thigh bone is connected to the hip bone in the human being. However, genetics and traumatic events conspire from time to time to make this connection rather tenuous. Hip dislocations occur when your thigh bone (or femur) slips out of your hip bone or acetabulum. It treats a hip dislocation as an emergency, in an adult or child after suffering a trauma. Your doctor will probably want to consult with an orthopedist, a medical professional who specializes in the musculoskeletal system. Hip dislocation can occur in all age groups, including children, and can be very painful. The treatments vary depending on the severity of your injury and its cause.
Types of dislocations
Doctors recognize two categories of hip dislocation: native and total articulation. In adults, native hip dislocation usually results from high-energy trauma, such as a car accident, in contrast to low-energy trauma (such as falls). Most traumatic dislocations occur when the upper part of your thigh bone pushes back, in what doctors call a posterior dislocation. It can also happen that the bone pushes forward, causing a previous dislocation, or that the hip cavity fractures and the femoral head moves towards the fracture. A total joint dislocation occurs when the femoral ball, located at the top of your thigh bone, moves and moves out of your prosthetic hip cavity.
In children, developmental problems or neuromuscular disorders can cause native hip dislocations. Evolutionary hip dysplasia refers to a condition that causes abnormal formation of the femoral head (the upper part of the thigh bone), and / or the acetabulum, the hip socket. This condition leads to improper positioning of the hip and possible chronic dislocations that may begin before birth. Neuromuscular disorders can also cause abnormalities in the shape of the hip joints, which will cause it to dislocate chronically. These patients often require muscle or bone surgery to help correct or prevent dislocations.
Patients with developmental dysplasia generally receive a support known as a Pavlik harness. If this harness fails, the patient is in a cast after relocating the hip, usually in a surgery room. If the cast fails, the surgeon may perform a procedure known as tendon release, in which the tendon is stretched and lengthened. Some patients may even require pelvic or femoral osteotomies, procedures that surgically align the bone.
If you are seeking treatment for a total or native dislocation in an emergency room after a traumatic event, physicians will first attempt a simplification by repositioning the bone or the entire hip in its cavity, usually under anesthesia. The hip then undergoes a range of movements to test its stability. The lengths of the legs are checked to verify that they are equal. If the procedure is unsuccessful, the patient may need surgery.
Some patients should be placed in a knee or brace immobilizer to limit their range of motion, in order to prevent another dislocation. Patients with acetabular fractures, in which the femoral head is dislocated in the fractured acetabulum, may also require skeletal traction, or the use of weights that resist resistance to dislocation or fracture to help improve alignment before being operated on. repair the acetabulum
Recurrent dislocation or signs of failure of the prosthetic components of the hip often require revision surgery to replace the previously implanted parts.
If a native hip dislocation is not readjusted, the blood supply to your thigh bone can be compromised, causing cell death and possible long-term health consequences, such as osteonecrosis and osteoarthritis of the hip.
Traumatic hip dislocations may cause injury to the sciatic nerve or fractures of the head and neck of the femur or acetabulum. Other injuries associated with high-speed traumas include ligament injuries to the knee.
Between 1 and 4 percent of patients with total hip arthroplasty (those who have had joint replacement surgery) suffer a dislocation, most of which are later. Almost 16 percent of patients undergoing revision total hip arthroplasty will have a dislocation.