Certain sexually transmitted diseases, or STDs ( They are not treated, they can decrease fertility in both men and women. These diseases are spread through sexual contact with an infected partner through oral, anal or vaginal sex. STDs are more prevalent in adolescents and young adults between the ages of 15 and 24 years.
Chlamydia and gonorrhea are the most common bacterial STDs. Doctors often describe them as "silent" infections because most people diagnosed with chlamydia or gonorrhea have no symptoms. For this reason, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommend annual chlamydia and gonorrhea tests for sexually active men and women aged 25 and under. Chlamydia in gonorrhea without treatment can adversely affect fertility in both men and women.
In women, chlamydia gonorrhea can cause cervicitis, inflammation of the cervix, or urethritis, inflammation of the urethra. The urethra drains the fluid from the bladder. If there are symptoms present, they may include an abnormal vaginal discharge, vaginal spotting and dysuria, which is a burning sensation during urination. If left untreated, 10 to 15% of chlamydial infections will cause an infection of the upper genital tract, in the uterus or fallopian tubes.
An infection in the upper genital tract is called Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID) or PID (for its acronym in English). PID can be asymptomatic or with symptoms. When there are symptoms, they can include pelvic pain, abnormal vaginal discharge, vaginal bleeding, nausea and fever. PID is a particularly serious condition, because it can permanently damage the uterus and the fallopian tubes.
When the ovules are released from the ovaries, they travel through the fallopian tubes before being fertilized by the sperm and implanted in the uterus. Fallopian tubes that have scars due to STDs can prevent the ovum and sperm from being found, thus inhibiting fertilization. Scars also increase the risk of an ectopic pregnancy, which is a pregnancy inside the fallopian tubes. An ectopic pregnancy may be the result if the scarring on the fallopian tubes prevents the fertilized egg from reaching the uterus. This type of pregnancy is potentially fatal because the fallopian tubes can be broken. Without emergency surgery, a woman would quickly die from internal bleeding.
Gonorrhea and chlamydia also cause urethritis in men, most of whom also have no symptoms. When there are symptoms, they may include dysuria, pain or redness around the opening of the penis or spontaneous penile discharge.If left untreated, the infection can spread to the genital tract and cause epididymitis, which is the inflammation of the epididymis. The epididymis is a structure that connects the testicles through ducts. The sperms made in the testicles travel through the epididymis when they mature.
Acute epididymitis causes redness, increased temperature, and swelling of the scrotum and testicles, usually on one side only. Recurrent or untreated infections can cause chronic epididymitis, which can lead to infertility by impairing mobility, function and sperm count.